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Hall s encoding View Segments Segment : Devereux, E. (Academic). (2015). Hall's encoding/decoding model for media analysis [Streaming video]. Retrieved from SAGE Video. Devereux, Eoin. "Hall's encoding/decoding model for media analysis." SAGE Video video, 00:14:56. 2015. http://sk.sagepub.com/video/halls-encoding-decoding-model-for-media-analysis. Hall's encoding/decoding model for media analysis 2015, online video, SAGE Publications Ltd., London, viewed 5 September 2018. Devereux, Eoin. "Hall's encoding/decoding model for media analysis." Online video clip. SAGE Video. SAGE Publications Ltd., 12 Jul. 2017. Web. 5 Sep. 2018. Have you Drinking and driving research paper essaysforstudent a personal profile? Login or create a profile above so that you can save clips, playlists, and searches. Please log in from an authenticated institution or log into your member profile to access the email feature. Alt + Control + P Toggle play and pause. Alt + Control + S Stop. Alt + Control + F Jump forward 5% Alt + Control + B Jump back 5% Alt + Control + Jump forward segment. Alt + Control + D Decrease volume. Alt + Control + U Increase volume. Alt + Control + M Toggle sound mute. Alt + Control + A Toggle audio descriptions (if available) Alt + Control + C Toggle captions (if available) Alt + Control + R Toggle resizing of player. Have you created a personal profile? Login or create a profile above so that you can save clips, playlists, and searches. Devereux, E. (Academic). (2015). Hall's encoding/decoding model for media analysis [Streaming video]. Retrieved from SAGE Video. Devereux, Eoin. "Hall's encoding/decoding model for media analysis." SAGE Video video, 00:14:56. 2015. http://sk.sagepub.com/video/halls-encoding-decoding-model-for-media-analysis. Hall's encoding/decoding model for media analysis 2015, online video, SAGE Publications Ltd., London, viewed 5 September 2018. Devereux, Eoin. "Hall's encoding/decoding model for media analysis." Online video clip. SAGE Video. SAGE Publications Ltd., 12 Jul. 2017. Web. 5 Sep. 2018. Have you created a personal profile? Login or create a profile above so that you can save clips, playlists, and searches. Please log in from an authenticated institution or log into your member profile to access the email feature. Alt + Control + P Toggle play and pause. Alt + Control + S Stop. Alt + Control + F Jump forward 5% Alt + Control + B Jump back 5% Alt + Control + Jump forward segment. Alt + Control + D Decrease volume. Alt + Control + U Increase volume. Alt + Control + M Toggle sound mute. Alt + Control + A Toggle audio descriptions (if available) Alt + Control + C Toggle captions (if available) Alt + Control + R Toggle resizing of player. [MUSIC PLAYING] [Hall's encoding/decoding model for media analysis] EOIN DEVEREUX: Hello, I'm Eoin Devereux. [Eoin Devereux, Senior Lecturer in Sociology, University of Limerick] I'm a Senior Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Limerick, in the Republic of Ireland. I'm going to talk about what I consider to be really one of the most important models within media analysis, that really helps us to think critically about the social, cultural, and political importance of the media. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: I'm talking of course about Stuart Hall's encoding/decoding model. So I will say a little bit about Stuart Hall to begin with. Stuart Hall lived between 1932 until 2014. And I got a comment as well on Hall's work as a major public intellectual in the UK and indeed, far beyond. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: I'll talk in more detail about close encoding/decoding model and how I see this as being a seismic shift within audience studies, within how we theorize about media, about media organizations, and indeed, the reception of media messages. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: Encoding and decoding is the beginning what we now call reception research within audience studies. [Stuart Hall: Background] Now before we talk about the encoding decoding model, I think it's important that we actually understand something about the background of Stuart Hall. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: Because I think it lends itself to our understanding of Hall's concerns as a public intellectual, as a person who made a major contribution to cultural theories, social theory, to the analysis of media. Stuart Hall was born in Kingston, Jamaica in 1932. And he emigrated to Britain in 1951. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: He made a major contribution to intellectual and public life in Britain and beyond. Stuart Hall served as director of the now debunked Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) at the University of Birmingham. And as Professor of Sociology at the Open University. In the latter part of his life, Professor Hall was involved with the Runnymede Trust which of course is concerned with examining the shape of a multi-ethnic Britain. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: I think we can say with some conviction that Stuart Hall's professional life was characterized by serious engagement with questions surrounding unequal power relationships in terms of class, ethnicity, race, and gender. Hall of course is renowned as a person who coined the phrase, Thatcherism. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: As a Neo-Marxist, Hall was equally critical of the British Torrie, or Conservative Party, and Tony Blair's New Labour Nazi Propaganda Essay, Writing Essay ?. He had an amazing output as an academic, as a writer, as a commentator. His writings on media and ideology ethnicity, race, and racism, multiculturalism, as well as the really, really important concept of moral panic, have been highly influential. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: [Encoding and decoding in the media discourse (1974)] So let's turn to Hall's most sited work within media and cultural studies. It is of course his now famous essay, Encoding and Decoding In the Media Discourse, published in 1974. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: Hall's work reminds us that the mass media do not simply reflect reality, they are actively involved in constructing it. Such construction is never neutral. Reflecting as it does, the ideas of the dominant social class or group. Here we can see how Stuart Hall was influenced by Antonio Gramsci, by Gramsci and Neo-Marxism, Semiotics and Linguistics. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: Hall was reacting to both traditional approaches to audiences, such as effects research, and uses in gratification research, and such recent variance as Screen Theory. For most in Stuart Hall's work is the contention that ideological struggle is real. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: And in evidence within Media Discourse. So this raises cheap write my essay anatomy and physiology urinalysis important questions for us. What role do the mass media women empowerment essays professors vs teachers in helping to perpetuate unequal social relationships in the so-called real world? What discourse of power do media professionals hold in explaining the world to audiences? EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: And remember, this is something that media professionals do day in, day out. Like a photocopier on repeat. They are explaining the world through print media, through broadcast media, through a whole range of media settings, they are explaining the social world, the economy, the society, politics. They are explaining phenomena day in and day out to audiences. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: Hall's encoding/decoding model represents therefore, a serious attempt by sociologists and others to rescue audience studies. And to put the question of unequal or asymmetrical power relations, center stage. Encoding/decoding asks us to seriously examine media work as an active process in which meanings are encoded. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: It also asks of us to examine the contexts in which audiences might accept, reject, our negotiate with the meanings which are given to them in a media text. Hall's model ultimately gives rise to what Abercrombie and Longhurst term the incorporation resistance paradigm within audience research. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: The model represents a serious attempt to put the question of unequal power relationships center stage. It asks us to examine media work as an active process, in which meanings are encoded and decoded. [The professional code] OK, so let's take a closer look at the codes that make up Hall's encoding/decoding model. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: And I'm going to start by talking about the professional code. The professional code in Hall's model refers to the conventions that media professionals use in order to encode meaning within a media message. Hall of course, is referring here to the production techniques that are employed to tell a story to audiences in a particular way, whilst remaining within the confines of the dominant code. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: And if you think about even everyday media content from television help me do my essay korematsu v. the united states, documentaries, from current affairs, from print media, we can see examples of how professional codes are routinely used to convey meaning in a particular way to audiences. So for example, the use of close-up camera shots, the use of black and white imagery to signify perhaps, the past or a dream sequence. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: A camera man or woman might you slow-motion filming somebody going into a court, going into a trial, or indeed, leaving a courthouse. Print media sub-editors might create banner headlines to signify events in a particular way. We can also think about how media professionals, such as journalists, use well-known frames or templates that audiences may have previous knowledge of. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: So a journalist might write about something being like a tsunami, or being a new 911, and they're tapping into discourses, forms of understanding that people in many instances would have had prior knowledge of. What's significant about the professional code in the encoding/decoding model is what we see here, is that media professionals routinely, every day, use and make reference to specific discourses to explain events to people in the social world. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: Media professionals encode a preferred or intended meaning into a media message, such as a television news report or a current affairs program. If the audience members interpret, or decode the message, in accordance with the intended or preferred meaning, they are said, in Hall's terms, to be operating inside the dominant code. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: buy essay online cheap models of health for health and social care negotiated code] The negotiated code though is something that is more typically what happens. So typically, audience members use what we call a negotiated code when making sense of media content. An audience member operating within the negotiated code might accept the broad thrust of a specific media message, and yet either adapt or reject elements of the overall message because it doesn't fit within their own immediate experience of the world. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: [The oppositional code] I'll now talk about the oppositional code. The oppositional code refers to the capacity of audience members to reject, outright, the preferred or intended meaning of a media message. Audience members who engage in an oppositional decoding How to buy a thesis bestgetfastessay.com, but ultimately reject the preferred or intended meaning as signified through the use of the dominant or hegemonic code. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: And we can think of an example of audiences encountering content that's racist or homophobic, that they find reprehensible, and they reject the intended meaning that outright. So we can see audience members reacting and resisting the content of the help me do my essay diversity and business in the united states, the encoded meaning of the text, by using an oppositional code in their interpretive work. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: [Reading/decoding in a social context] Encoding/decoding allows for a certain amount of openness in the media message. However, the reading or the decoding of the media message takes place in a social context, where individual audience members occupy unequal positions of power and have the capacity to accept, adapt, a reject media messages. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: What we learn from Hall's encoding/decoding model is as follows, it tells us that ideological domination is achieved not through false consciousness, but through hegemony. It points to the significance of codes, the codes used by media professionals in creating meaning and creating media content, and indeed the codes that are used by audiences in interpreting media content. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: Encoding/decoding also stresses for us both the importance of Semiotic Theory, the importance of understanding how symbols work, how texts work symbolically. It also reminds us of the significance of our need to critically understand media language, and by that I don't just mean need help writing my paper bollywood industry words that are used in a media text, I mean the language of the camera. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: I mean what the text actually includes, the devices that are used, the different conventions that are used in conveying meaning to audiences, and explaining complex social phenomena to them. It reminds us also of the role, the crucial role, of media professionals in disseminating dominant and other forms of ideology. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: And I suppose this asks us to question the very assumption of journalistic objectivity, the idea of media content, or journalism more particularly, being neutral and so on. It is never neutral. It always reflects a particular set of values and assumptions about the social world. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: And we can see that in the encoding that takes place. It raises for us the question of audience agency. It raises for us in a very important question as to where power resides? So is the power with the encoders? The creators of media content? Or is it with audiences who decode the media context? EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: The recognition of the social location, the cultural position of audience members is also stressed. You can read of course, much further about encoding and decoding by looking at the work of the scholars, Charlotte Brunsdon and David Morley they had one particular study on Nationwide. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: And then Morley study published in 1980 on the nationwide audience. Because the work is a very interesting application what actually happens in practice when you apply the encoding/decoding model to what audiences make, or how they interpret a particular media text. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: [Go futher] If you'd like to go further in you're reading about Hall's encoding/decoding model, I'd like you to read the chapter on media professionals and media production in my book, Understanding The Media, Third Edition. And of course, there's nothing like going back to the original. EOIN DEVEREUX [continued]: Go back and read the classic essay by Stuart Hall published in 1974, Encoding and Decoding and the Television Discourse.

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