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Reliability and validity: complex issues concerning the applicability of intelligence iq tests essays With the development of statistical and other quantitative tools and methods that quantify abstract and qualitative information, the late 19th century, where subsistence buy essay online cheap natural selection paper empiricism is evident, have led to the proliferation of quantifiable measures, called tests, that seek to state in simpler terms an individual's skills, knowledge, and characteristics (personal attributes). One prominent example of these measures are intelligence tests, which is a measure used to determine an individual's "general mental capability to reason, solve problems, think abstractly, learn and understand new material, and profit from past experience" (Detterman, 2002). The development of intelligence tests originated way back in the late 19th century, when Sir Frances Galton introduced the eugenics movement, which attempts to discriminate between a€?superior' and a€?inferior' physiological and psychological characteristics of people. Methods and concepts concerning intelligence testing had improved in the 20th century, when Alfred Binet formulated the first intelligence test and was later refined by William Stern's intelligence quotient (IQ) test, defined as "an individual's mental age divided by chronological age (multiplied by 100)" (Santrock, 2001:291). The IQ test adapted Binet's method of measuring intelligence in an individual, where an individual's mental age (MA) is measured vis-A -vis his/her chronological age (CA). Thus, disparities between the MA and CA primarily determine the score, or level, of IQ an individual has. Other tests of intelligence buy essay online cheap natural selection paper thereafter are the Wechsler scale, developed by David Wechsler, which is an intelligence test that involves both help writing my paper gene expression in eukaryotes and non-verbal IQ of an individual. Indeed, the development of intelligence tests helped determine essential information needed in determining the capacity and capability of an individual to accomplish tasks that require .